Various muscles and ligaments combine to make the arch, but the process takes time. This is why infants and even many toddlers have flat feet with no or minimal arches. With time, the muscles strengthen and the ligaments, especially at the ankle, tighten up and do a better job of holding the foot in place. The medial arch appears around two years of age, but it won’t look like an adult arch until about kindergarten age. Generally painless, flat feet can silently lead to repercussions such as backaches, tendonitis, heel spurs etc., triggered by over pronation. This article tells you how to spot and manage flat feet better. The anatomy of foot is extremely complicated for it consists of bones, ligaments, muscles and tendons. Ligaments are soft tissues that serve as a junction between two bones. On the other hand, tendons join the muscles with the bones. The ligaments and tendons are made up of fibers which are known as collagen Achilles tendon is the essential tendon for activities such as walking and running. It connects the calf muscles to the heel bones resulting in the action of rising up on your toes. There is another tendon, known as posterior tibial tendon that joins the muscles of the calf to the base of the foot. The pediatric foot is a complex instrument that must be carefully evaluated. Issaquah Foot & Ankle Specialists treat a variety of pediatric foot and ankle problems in patients from Issaquah, Sammamish, Bellevue and the greater Seattle area. We have both the experience and knowledge to intervene when appropriate. Your child will not always "outgrow" their foot or ankle problems. Children with flatfeet often have difficulty running or participating in sports. They may develop foot and ankle pain, pain at the end of the day or a feeling of fatigue in the lower extremity. In addition children can develop low back pain, hip or knee pain as well. Orthotics is designed to correct faulty foot function reducing the amount of ankle role and arch flattening during the gait cycle. In turn this will reduce the amount of internal rotation of the ankles, legs and knees. By correcting over-pronation orthotics re-align the feet and ankle bones to their neutral position, restoring our natural foot function. Therefore, orthotics not only helps alleviateproblems in the feet but also in otherparts of the body such as the knees and lower back. What different types of orthotics are available? Sep 12, 2010 By Shannon Cotton Photo Caption Fallen arches are common in children. Photo Credit Feet Hanging image by Antonio Oquias from Fotolia.com The knee joint is a hinge joint comprised of the femur above and the tibia below. The knee functions primarily in bending and extending. Yet despite the importance of the knee in our everyday function, the knee joint is significantly impacted by the function and structure of joints above and below; specifically the hip and foot. Weakness and a loss of mobility in the hip as well as flexibility and biomechanical issues of the foot can result in abnormal stress passed on to the knee, causing a variety of knee conditions. The knee in many ways becomes the victim secondary to its location.